定语从句的考查是一个,该原因状语从句中还包含由as引导的另一个原因状语从句

翻译是各种英语考试中经常会考察的内容。下面小编带你看2018考研英语:考研人必须掌握哪些定语从句翻译技巧?

第十六讲 简单句、并列句和复合句

第056句

In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, it is no
exaggeration to say “Unity we stand, divided we fall “

译文:在应对如此规模的挑战时,可以毫不夸张地说:“合则存,分则亡。”

点睛:本句中介词短语in dealing
with.…scale是句子的状语。it是句子的形式主语,真正的主语是动词不定式结构to
say…。“Unity we stand,divided we fall.”是一个省略句,完整形式为:If
we area unity,we stand;if we are divided.we fall.

考研英语翻译中,定语从句的考查是一个**和难点,且考查频次也很高,据海文老师统计,平均每年翻译真题中对定语从句的考查达到2次。接下来,我们对定语从句相关知识进行详细的介绍和数理。

一。考纲要求

第057句

The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some
connection with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long
before people realized how diverse languages could be.

译文:希腊人认为,语言结构与思维过程之间存在着某种联系。这一观点在人们尚未认识到语言的千差万别之前就早已在欧洲扎根了。

点睛:本句中that引导的是assumed的宾语从句。which引导的非限定性定语从句,对前面整个句子进行说明,该定语从句又包含before引导的时间状语从句。而how引导的是realized的宾语从句。some此处意为“某个,某些”,表示不确定的概念。take
root in意为“在…扎根”。

2018考研英语:考研人必须掌握哪些定语从句翻译技巧?

考试大纲要求考生能正确判断句子的类型、分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选择适当的连接词语、判断主语和从句的正确语序、恰当选择主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

第058句

We are obliged to them because some of these languages have since
vanished, as the peoples who spoke them died out or became
assimilated and lost their native languages.

译文:我们很感激他们,因为在此之后,由于说这些语言的部族或是灭绝,或是被同化并丧失了自己的本族语言,这些语言中有一些已经消失了。

点睛:本句的主干为we are obliged to them+
because引导的原因状语从句,该原因状语从句中还包含由as引导的另一个原因状语从句。who引导的是以peoples为先行词的定语从句。短语be
obliged( to sb.) for sth. /doing sth.意为“受恩惠而感激(某人)”。die
out此处意为“灭绝,逐渐消失”。

考点归纳:与动词die相关的常见短语还有:

  • die away慢慢变弱,渐渐消失
    The strange noise died away.
    那奇怪的噪音慢慢消失了。

  • die down减弱,平息
    Don’t worry; the gossip will soon die down.
    别担心,流言不久就会平息的。

  • die off相继死去
    The plants in the garden died off.
    花园里的植物相继死去。

英语中的定语从句起到了一个修饰的作用,作用相当于形容词,那么定语从句我们也称之为形容词性从句。同时,我们把定语从句分为两类,一是限制性定语从句,一类是非限定性定语从句。那么,什么是限定性定语从句,简单来讲就是对所修饰的先行词的意思加以限制,表示“…的人或是物”,例如:He
is a man whom you should marry。在这个句子中,如果去掉定语从句whom you
should marry。这个句子意思就不完整,甚至可以说是不成立了。

二。命题导向

第059句

The newly described languages were often so strikingly different from
the well studied languages of Europe and Southeast Asia that some
scholars even accused Boas and Sapir of fabricating their data.

译文:这些新近被描述的语言与已经得到充分研究的欧洲的语言和东南亚的语言往往差别显著,这使得有些学者甚至指责博厄斯和萨丕尔捏造数据。

点睛:本句的主干是…languages
were…different…,句中包含so…that…结构。过去分词短语newly
described和well studied分别作languages和languages of…的定语。accuse
sb. of doing sth.意为“指责某人做某事”。

而非限定性定语从句,顾名思义,这类定语从句对于所修饰的事物没有限制意义的作用,而起到一种补充说明和解释的作用,与主句的关系并不密切,拿掉非限定性定语从句,主句意思照样成立。例如:He
is my father, who love me deeply。在这个句子中,如果去掉这个“who love
me deeply。”非限定性定语从句,He is my
father,这个主句照样成立,意思也不会受到太大影响。而定语从句种类的不同,我们在翻译的时候采用的翻译方法也不尽相同。

高考对简单句、并列句和复合句的考查主要包括:句子的结构、连词的选择、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习惯用语和特殊的句式应用。

第060句

Being interested in the relationship of language and thought, Whorf
developed the idea that the structure of language determines the
structure of habitual thought in a society.

译文:沃尔夫对语言与思维之间的关系很感兴趣,并形成了这样的观点:在一个社会中,语言的结构决定习惯思维的结构。

点睛:该句的主干是Whorf developed the idea…,现在分词短语being
interested
in…作句子的状语,所描述的对象就是句子的主语Whorf。that引导的是idea的同位语从句,其中in
a society作状语。

考点归纳:现在分词短语作状语一般有以下几种情况:

  • 表伴随动作
    Opening the drawer,he took out an envelope.
    他打开抽屉,拿出一个信封。

  • 表原因
    Feeling rather tired,1 went to bed.
    由于感到很疲倦,我就睡觉了。

  • 表时间
    Walking through the park, we saw a flower show.
    我们从公园穿过时看到一个花卉展。

当一个限定性定语从句结构和意义较为简单,或是较为简短时,我们把英语原文的定语从句翻译成带“的”的定语词组,放置于被修饰的词之前,将英语原文的复合句翻译成汉语的简单句。

三。复习要点

Furthermore, humans have the ability to modify the environment in which
they live, thus subjecting all other life forms to their own peculiar
ideas and fancies。

1.简单句、并列句和复合句

本句中the
environment后面又跟了一个定语从句。大家看下他是什么定语从句,是限定性还是非限定性定语从句。限定性吧!它有什么特点呢,只有三个词,意义和结构都较为简单,因此我们在翻译的时候就要把它放在他所修饰的先行词的前面。

① 句子种类两种分类法

译文:而且,人类还有能力改变自己的生存环境,从而使所有其它形态的生命服从人类自己*特的想法和想像。

按照句子的用途,英语的句子可分:陈述句(肯定、否定)、疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意)、祈使句、感叹句等四种。

But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been
able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns
and structures that existed 15 billion years ago。

按照句子的结构可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

这个句子中That existed 15 billion years
ago。是一个定语从句,其先行词是the patterns and
structures。这个定语从句比较简单,我们可以直接将其翻译他所修饰的先行词的前面。

简单句只有一个主语或并列主语和一个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and,
but,
or,so等)或分号(;)把两个或两个以上的简单句连在一起构成。复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

译文:但更为重要的是,这是科学家们所能观察到的*遥远的过去的景象,因为他们看到的是150亿年前宇宙云的形状和结构。

② 并列句的分类

当一个限定性定语从句的结构较为复杂,意义较为繁杂的时候,如果把它翻译在其修饰的先行词的后面的话,会显得定语太过于臃肿和复杂,而无法让评卷老师看的清清楚楚,明明白白。所以这个时候我们要把定语从句单*翻译出来,放置于原来它所修饰的词的后面当定语。同时当定语从句是一个非限定性定语从句的时候,往往也要单*成句。

并列句指把两个同等重要的句子连接在一起,句子之间常用and, not only…but
also…, neither…nor…, then等并列连词连接。

Tylor defined culture as “。。。that complex whole which includes
belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and
habits acquired by man as a member of society。”

表示选择关系常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

在这个句子中,whole后面是一个很长的定语从句,无论从结构和意义上看都较为复杂,所以翻译时可以和先行词拆开。

表示转折关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

译文:泰勒把文化定义为“一个复合体”,它包括人作为社会成员所获得的信仰、艺术、道德、法律、风俗以及其它能力和习惯。

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

The Greeks assumed that the structure of language had some connection
with the process of thought, which took root in Europe long before
people realized how diverse languages could be。

2.状语从句:

“which took root in Europe long before people realized how diverse
languages could
be。”是非限定性定语从句,修饰前面整个句子;在定语从句中long
before引导时间状语从句修饰动词短语Take
Root,在状语从句中又包含了一个由how引导的宾语从句,作realized的宾语。句中Take
root
in作“扎根“讲。因此这个非限定性定语从句是较为复杂的,所以我们采用单*成句的翻译方法。

(1)状语从句的分类

译文:“希腊人认为语言结构与思维过程有着某种关系,这种观点在人们认识到语言的千差万别之前就在欧洲扎了根。”

状语从句通常修饰主句的动词或整个句子,由从属连词引导,从属连词在从句中不充当句子成分。根据状语从句所表达的不同意义和功能,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、比较、方式等状语从句。

把主句和定语从句融合成一个简单句,定语从句译成谓语。这种方法一般用于限制性定语从句,尤其是“there
be”句型中。

(2)连接状语从句的词语

There is a girl downstairs who wants to see you。

时间状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as,
hardly/ scarcely…when…, no sooner…than.。.一……就……,while, till,
until, since, once。名词词组the first time第一次,last
time最后一次,every/each time每次,the next time下次,the next
day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant
一……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

There are many people who are interested in the new invention。

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

很多人对这项**感兴趣。

地点状语从句:where,wherever(无论那里)。

英语中有些定语从句,不仅仅起到一个定语修饰的作用,而且在逻辑上与主句有状语关系,表示原因、让步、转折等等关系。所以广大考生在翻译的时候,应尽量从英语句子的意义上发现这些逻辑上的关系,然后翻译成汉语中相对应的逻辑关系来。

让步状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though,
although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however,
wherever, whenever等。

Actually, it isn‘t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account
of human rights, which is something the world does not have。

条件状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如果;只要),in case (万一);
on condition that(如果), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

在这个句子中which引导非限制性定语从句修饰名词an agreed account,而the
world does not
have是省略了从句引导词that的定语从句,修饰something。这个定语从句在这里有一个转折的逻辑关系在里边,所以要翻译出来!

目的状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

译文:事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有共同认识为基础的,而这种共同认识并不存在。

比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……)
引导。

2018考研英语:考研人必须掌握哪些定语从句翻译技巧?希望以上的内容能够对考研的同学有所帮助。

方式状语从句:as(正如;按照),as if/as though (好像)引导。

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

(3)从句中的语序

复合句中通常采用陈述语序。但是,在下面的几种情况下,状语从句多采用倒装语序:

①当连词as,
though连接让步状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词通常置于句首,构成部分倒装语序。例如:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as
John。

Try as she might, Carol couldn’t get the door open。

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

②在so/such…that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句采用部分倒装语序。例如:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new
branches elsewhere.

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

③在hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no
sooner置于句首时,第一个分句采用部分倒装语序,即把第二个分句用陈述语序。例如:

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

④ however与形容词、副词一起引导让步状语从句,句子采用陈述语序。例如:

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my
attention on study this week。

⑤ 在the
+比较级the+比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍然采用陈述语序。例如:Education
is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you
are。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态一般遵循以下的规律:

①表示“同时”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while
等连接的时间状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。例如:As time passed,
things seemed to get worse。


表示“将来”意义的条件、时间和让步状语从句中多用一般现在时,而主句用一般将来时,被称为“主将从现”。例如:Tom
won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。


since引导的时间状语从句多用一般过去时,而含有since从句的主句通常用现在完成时。例如:I
haven’t met her since I left university。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no
sooner…than…中,第一个分句中过去完成时,第二个分句用一般过去时。例如:She
had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

⑤ 在as if/though
引导的状语从句中,如果表示一种与事实相反夸张,从句多用一般过去时或过去完成时。例如:She
stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

(5)状语从句的省略

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,被动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词+现在分词。例如:We
all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get
worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用于强调结构中

状语从句作为被强调部分用于强调结构时,一律用It is/was
…that…,不能用when代替that。句子用陈述语序。注意:当强调Not until
+时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采用倒装语序。例如:It was not until
the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

按照在句中的功能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句四种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可被省略;表示“是否”用whether,只有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担任成分。如果从句缺少主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用连接代词what,
whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose,
which;如果从句缺少状语,用连接副词when, where, how, why。

由于连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因而从句中谓语不用疑问语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,而连接词whether
和if(是否),在从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在以下三种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”,
should可省略。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural,
funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊讶的)等。

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。常见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion,
proposal(提议,建议), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。常见的动词有advise, order, propose,
request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(坚持), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令),
suggest(建议),advise(建议),recommend(建议,推荐),
request(请求,要求),
demand(要求),require(要求,需要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,
should可省略。

③ 在含有advice, order, demand, proposal(提议), requirement,
suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可省略。

④在一些表示惊讶、意志等感情色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should
+have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。例如:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的分类

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句两种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限制作用,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起补充和解释说明作用。通常限制性定语从句与先行词之间没有逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开。

(2)定语从句的关系代词和关系副词

定语从句一般由关系代词和关系副词引导。关系代词有:who, whom, whose,
which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where,
why。关系代词和关系副词必须位于从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着连接先行词和从句的作用,同时在从句中又充当句子成分。

(3)关系代词和关系副词的用法:

①当先行词为人时用who
作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或整个句子时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that
,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤
关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。例如:I
was the only person in our office who was
invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)


非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。例如:His
movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his
wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的几个问题

①用that而不用 which的情况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing,
much…;先行词有最高级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very,
any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。例如:There is nothing that can
prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用
that的情况:引导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意思;用于介词 的后面+
关系代词。例如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be
poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world,
there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an
example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行词为 the same
+名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as引导定语从句。例如:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b.
as可指代主句的内容,引导的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as
is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all
know, as I expect 等。例如: He got the first place again in this
mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 引导非限制性定语从句时与which的区别

当主句和从句语义一致时,用as引导;反之,用which来引导非限制性定语从句;当非限制定语从句为否定意义时,常用which引导。例如:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。例如:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the
morning。

⑤ 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 + which”来代替。例如:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was
founded。

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只能用which和whom,且不能省略;如果介词在句末,关系代词可用which,
that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可省略。例如:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be
friendly。

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